|Titolo||Subfunctionalization of D27 Isomerase Genes in Saffron|
|Tipo di pubblicazione||Articolo su Rivista peer-reviewed|
|Anno di Pubblicazione||2022|
|Autori||López-Jiménez, A.J., Morote L., Niza E., Mondéjar M., Rubio-Moraga A., Diretto Gianfranco, Ahrazem O., and Gomez-Gomez L.|
|Rivista||International Journal of Molecular Sciences|
|Parole chiave||Amino Acid Sequence, amyloplast, article, bacterial colonization, beta carotene, Carotenoid, Catalysis, chromoplast, cis trans isomerism, controlled study, Crocus sativus, enzyme activity, Escherichia coli, gene expression level, gene expression profiling, gene identification, gene isolation, high performance liquid chromatography, in vivo study, isomerase, Isomerization, mycorrhiza, nonhuman, phylogenetic tree, pistil stigma, plant gene, plant leaf, plant root, plant tissue, Rhizobium, Sequence Alignment, stamen, Zeaxanthin|
Chromoplasts and chloroplasts contain carotenoid pigments as all-trans- and cis-isomers, which function as accessory light-harvesting pigments, antioxidant and photoprotective agents, and precursors of signaling molecules and plant hormones. The carotenoid pathway involves the participation of different carotenoid isomerases. Among them, D27 is a β-carotene isomerase showing high specificity for the C9-C10 double bond catalyzing the interconversion of all-trans- into 9-cis-β-carotene, the precursor of strigolactones. We have identified one D27 (CsD27-1) and two D27-like (CsD27-2 and CsD27-3) genes in saffron, with CsD27-1 and CsD27-3, clearly differing in their expression patterns; specifically, CsD27-1 was mainly expressed in the undeveloped stigma and roots, where it is induced by Rhizobium colonization. On the contrary, CsD27-2 and CsD27-3 were mainly expressed in leaves, with a preferential expression of CsD27-3 in this tissue. In vivo assays show that CsD27-1 catalyzes the isomerization of all-trans- to 9-cis-β-carotene, and could be involved in the isomerization of zeaxanthin, while CsD27-3 catalyzes the isomerization of all-trans- to cis-ζ-carotene and all-trans- to cis-neurosporene. Our data show that CsD27-1 and CsD27-3 enzymes are both involved in carotenoid isomerization, with CsD27-1 being specific to chromoplast/amyloplast-containing tissue, and CsD27-3 more specific to chloroplast-containing tissues. Additionally, we show that CsD27-1 is co-expressed with CCD7 and CCD8 mycorrhized roots, whereas CsD27-3 is expressed at higher levels than CRTISO and Z-ISO and showed circadian regulation in leaves. Overall, our data extend the knowledge about carotenoid isomerization and their implications in several physiological and ecological processes. © 2022 by the authors.
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